When the impact of high-power femtosecond radiation is the formation of surface periodic structures (Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structure, LIPSS), which can be used for various applications: the formation of anti-reflection coatings, discoloration of the metal without color management wettability when creating microfluidic microsystems.
Fig. 1. a) image of the surface of periodic structures on nickel obtained by a scanning electron microscope, b) three-dimensional surface profile, c) the structure profile.
Also femtosecond pulses can be carried out precision machining of materials, such as cutting, drilling. Because this heat treatment due to the ultrashort pulse is greatly reduced compared with longer pulses, the quality of the resulting modification in this case is much higher.